Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis

Case Presentation

A 16-year-old boy presents to A&E with a fever, an extremely sore throat, and a recent blotchy rash on his back that has been concerning him. He complains of feeling extremely tired and lethargic for the past two weeks. He denies having recently been in contact with anyone ill and confirms that he is up-to-date with his vaccinations. He mentions a visit with his local GP last week, where his doctor prescribed a dose of amoxicillin for a suspected throat infection. He has no other significant medical history. Upon further examination, his pharynx and tonsils appear inflamed with whitewash exudate and he has swollen neck lymph nodes in both the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck.

What is/are the most appropriate next step(s) in the patient’s management?

The answer is c) Arrange a full blood count and a monospot test

What is Glandular Fever?

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever, is an infection resulting most commonly (80-90%) from an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). About 95% of adults in the world have been infected with EBV; however, it is rare for it to progress into glandular fever. Glandular fever is most commonly seen in individuals aged 15-24, but can present in all age groups. The prevalence of glandular fever is estimated to be between 5-48 cases per 1000 persons. Glandular fever is rather rate in those under 10 or older than 30 (1/1000 persons), so it may not need to be in your top differentials in those age groups! In young adults, the likelihood of developing glandular fever from a primary EBV infection is about 50%; in older adults the chances of EBV infection progressing to glandular fever is slim.

For the most part, glandular fever is not contagious. It’s mostly spread through contact with saliva; such as by kissing, sharing food, or children putting things in their mouths. It can also be spread through sexual contact. Luckily, in most occurrences, glandular fever is self-limiting and lasts two to four weeks. The most common lasting effect is fatigue, which can continue from weeks to months.

When Should You Suspect Glandular Fever?

The classic ‘triad’ of symptoms for glandular fever are: 

  • Fever
  • Lymphadenopathy
  • Pharyngitis (‘sore throat’)

Bilateral posterior cervical lymphadenopathy is typical for glandular fever. Tonsils may also be enlarged, and exudate on the tonsils is described as ‘whitewash’. 

Additional signs and symptoms that could include:

  • Prodromal symptoms: 
    • Fatigue, chills, myalgia, headache
  • Palatal petechiae
    • 1-2mm in diameter and lasting 3-4 days
  • Abdominal pains 
  • Nausea and vomiting 
  • Non-specific rash
    • In this case, the patient had a maculopapular rash which is associated with EBV infection. It can be caused by the infection directly but more commonly presents after being treat with amoxicillin; patients should not take penicillin antibiotics when they have infectious mononucleosis. 
  • Splenomegaly 

If you see, or the patient tells you, of any of the following symptoms during their visit to the emergency department, it requires hospitalization! 

  • Difficulty swallowing 
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Severe stomach/abdominal pain

These may suggest malignancy. Difficulty swallowing and breathing are most often due to inflamed tonsils and may require steroids. Severe stomach/abdominal pain might suggest a ruptured spleen. Refer to your local guidelines for investigation and treatment if these symptoms present. 

Differential Diagnoses

Viral pharyngitis

  • This is the most common alternative diagnoses
  • Viral pharyngitis tends to be more erythematous 
  • Exudate is not common with viral pharyngitis

Bacterial tonsillitis

  • Bacterial tonsillitis is more commonly described as having ‘speckled’ exudate on tonsils, compared to the ‘whitewash’ exudate on tonsils in glandular fever
  • Lymphadenopathy is usually limited to the upper anterior cervical chain, where in glandular fever, lymphadenopathy can be commonly seen in both anterior and posterior triangles

Other differentials could include other causes of lymphadenopathy, such as inflammation/infection, lymphoma, or leukemia. Alternative viral infections should also be considered (e.g. cytomegalovirus, acute toxoplasmosis, acute viral hepatitis, inter alia). 

Investigations If Glandular Fever Is Suspected

In children younger than 12, or a person who is immunocompromised, a blood test for EBV viral serology should be arranged (if the patient has been ill for seven days). 

In individuals older than 12, a full blood count with differential white cell count and a monospot test should be arranged in their second week of illness. Glandular fever is likely if:

  • The monospot test is positive
  • The full blood count has more than 20% atypical lymphocytes 


More than 10% atypical lymphocytes and the lymphocyte count is more than 50% of the total white cell count.


The patient only needs to be hospitalized if they have stridor, difficulty swallowing, are dehydrated, or there is a chance of potentially serious complications (such as a splenic rupture). Steroids should only be used if the patient shows to have difficulty breathing, otherwise, management should be conservative. If the patient doesn’t have any of these concerning signs, it is appropriate to advise the patient of their illness and discharge them for follow-up with their GP.

Some Recommendations To Patients

Some things you can advise the patient on for self-management of glandular fever include:

  • Symptoms usually only last 2-4 weeks 
  • Fatigue may be the last symptom to resolve
  • Relieve symptoms of pain and fever with paracetamol or ibuprofen
  • Encouraging normal daily routines and that exclusion from work or school is not necessary
  • Spreading of disease can be limited by avoiding kissing and not sharing eating utensils
  • They should return to the hospital if they suspect any serious complications (such increased difficulty to breath/swallow, or severe abdominal pain)

References and Further Reading

Cite this article as: Nadine Schottler, Great Britain, "Infectious mononucleosis," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, August 16, 2021,, date accessed: December 3, 2022

Neutropenic Fever Syndrome

Neutropenic Fever Syndrome

The story of Carl Wunderlich, his dedication to determine average body temperature, and his not so accurate thermometer is well known among the medical fraternity. Like any other physiological parameter, the average temperature should be looked at as a range and not a number. There are certain instances when a temperature above 0.5-degree centigrade of average is too hot for an ER doctor. Let us talk about one such condition today.

Cancer patients being treated with anti-neoplastics are at risk of neutropenic fever syndrome (NFS). An overly simplistic, and hence super helpful way of looking at NFS is: anti-neoplastics damage gastrointestinal mucosa, help bugs translocate into the bloodstream, and at the same time damage our white blood cells. All this happens in the background of malignancy, already an immunocompromised status.

Eighty percent of identified infections in NFS arise from endogenous flora. Well, that backs up my oversimplification. Now I can confidently tell you this statistic; infectious sources are only found in up to 30% of the cases.

NFS is a disease of acute leukemia patients. Up to 95% of leukemia patients, 25% of non-leukemic patients with hematologic malignancies, and 10 percent of patients with solid tumors get NFS after being started on cytotoxic therapy.

Fever in neutropenic [Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) <500] patients is a single temperature of 101F or a temperature of 100.4° F over one hour.

How would you calculate ANC?

Total leukocyte X (% of neutrophils + % of band neutrophils)

How do you measure temperature?

Neutropenia is one of the two common instances when a rectal temperature is wrong; the other is thrombocytopenic patients. Oral temperature is adequate; make sure they don’t have oral mucositis that can falsely increase the reading in the patient’s thermometer and your head at the same time.

To make it even more complicated, guess what most patients on cancer chemotherapy are taking? Glucocorticoids! Also, remember, they are neutropenic, meaning they don’t have an adequate inflammatory response. Infections in neutropenic can present without elevated temperature, so be aware of SIRS: tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension.

There are scoring systems to stratify NFS patients in high and low risk; CISNE and MASCC scores are examples, but none are comprehensive and hence are underused.

The management’s holy grail is antibiotics, but with such diverse and elite targets, where do you shoot? Let us try and oversimplify this: If the bugs are coming from our gut, they better be gram-negative rods (Pseudomonas aeruginosa!) That was so very true back in the day. Now, with the introduction to long-term indwelling central venous catheters, the empiric antibiotics to cover P. aeruginosa, and other gram negatives (Ciprofloxacin)– Staphylococcus epidermidis is winning the race. The gram-negatives are catching up; 60:40 is the score currently.

Fungi are not frequently the cause of the first febrile episode, but candida from the gut (of course!) and aspergillus from the lungs are culprits in long-term invasive fungal infections.

Here is another one for those who like analogies; Remember how there is a time-dependent door to needle approach in treating STEMI or acute stroke? There is one for NFS, sort of; 60 mins, some agree, some don’t! The unanimous consensus is to do it fast!

The problems like time for confirmation of neutropenia, a protocol for what to cover, and where to start antibiotics are yet to be discussed and solved. Studies have been done to demonstrate that mortality increases with every hour delay in administering antibiotics. A good rule of thumb to follow is administering antibiotics right after you draw blood for culture and before you send it.
They pose one last problem while recovering from neutropenia. Myeloid reconstitution syndrome is fever and a new inflammatory focus while neutrophil numbers go up. That is vaguely reminiscent of immune reconstitution syndrome in newly started HAART patients.

Next time you see a patient being treated for leukemia with a temperature of 100.4° F being triaged to a green zone in your ER, know that green has different shades.

Cite this article as: Sajan Acharya, Nepal, "Neutropenic Fever Syndrome," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, January 18, 2021,, date accessed: December 3, 2022

Pneumonia is just uploaded!

377.1 - pneumonia1

Pneumonia chapter written by Mary J O from USA is just uploaded to the Website!

A new chapter from Shabana Walia

Thyroid Storm chapter written by Shabana Walia from USA is just uploaded to the Website!

38 - atrial fibrillation

A 68-year-old female with hypertension presented to the emergency department with worsening of lower extremity swelling for the last few months. She appeared to be confused over the last three days according to her husband. He also noted that she had a fever. She had intermittent chest discomfort and was feeling “anxious.” She was compliant with the prescribed antihypertensive (lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide). She used no tobacco or illicit drug. She had a family history of hypertension and hyperthyroidism.

Her vitals at triage were as follows: BP 170 over 86mmHg, HR 136/min, RR 18/min, Temperature 40.2°C and SP O2 100% on room air. She appeared agitated and flushed, with bilateral exophthalmos and lid lag. Her thyroid was diffusely enlarged with bruit noted. Her pulse was irregularly irregular. She had pitting edema up to the mid-shin. Bilateral plantar reflexes were 3+. The rest of the physical examination was unremarkable.

Her blood test results were as follow:
Normal CBC and renal function.
Calcium: 11.5 mg/dL
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) < 0.01 milli-international unit/L
Free T3: > 30 picogram/mL
Free T4: > 6 nanogram/dL
Troponin: 0.1
Pro-BNP: 3,000 picogram/mL

A diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made, and she was evaluated for possible thyroid storm.

by Shabana Walia from USA.