SAFE-BBOP! – A mnemonic for anaphylaxis management in the emergency department

anaphylaxis

While recently experiencing eight incredible weeks of Emergency Medicine rotations, I was reviewing my approach to anaphylaxis. Coincidentally, there was a real case a few days later, and I found the following mnemonic useful. If you’re having trouble remembering the different components of management for adult cases of anaphylaxis in the emergency department, think of SAFE-BBOP

This is not the exact order in which anaphylaxis should be approached, but it may facilitate memorizing commonly-used treatment modalities while learning and reviewing the general approach. The ABC algorithm should be applied first (see: https://iem-student.org/abc-approach-critically-ill/). Following the diagnosis of anaphylaxis, epinephrine should be administered promptly, as delayed administration has been associated with increased mortality (1-4).

SAFE BBOP

S - Steroids

Prednisone 50mg PO or methylprednisolone 125mg IV. Glucocorticoids are theoretically used to prevent a possible biphasic reaction; however, there is limited evidence for this.

A - Antihistamines (H1 and H2)

Ranitidine 150mg PO/50mg IV, Diphenhydramine 25-50mg PO/IV. Their use is based on studies of urticaria and should only be used as an adjunct therapy.

F - Fluids

Normal saline or Ringer’s lactate 1-2 L IV.

B - Beta-blocked

If a patient is on a beta-blocker and is refractory to the administered epinephrine, consider glucagon 1-5mg slow IV bolus over 5mins, followed by an infusion at 5-15mcg/min, titrated to effect.

B - Bronchodilators

For persistent bronchospasm despite epinephrine, an inhaled bronchodilator can be considered, such as salbutamol 2.5-5mg nebulized or 4-8 puffs by MDI with spacer q20 mins x 3. This is based on studies of acute asthma exacerbation and should only be used as an adjunct therapy.

O - Oxygen

Every patient, who is critically ill, requires supportive oxygen treatment.

P - Positioning

Recumbent position with lower extremity elevation (consider left lateral decubitus position for pregnant patients to prevent inferior vena cava compression).

As for disposition considerations, the SAFE system below was introduced by Lieberman et al. (2007) to recognize the four basic actions to address with patients prior to discharge from the emergency department (5).

  • Seek support
  • Allergen identification and avoidance
  • Follow-up for specialty care
  • Epinephrine for emergencies

For a detailed review of anaphylaxis definitions, signs and symptoms, refer to this great Life in the Fast Lane article: https://litfl.com/anaphylaxis/

References

  1. Prince, B.T., Mikhail, I., & Stukus, D.R. (2018). Underuse of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis: missed opportunities. J Asthma Allergy, 11, 143-151.
  2. Sheikh, A., Shehata, Y., Brown, S.G., & Simons, F.E. (2009). Adrenaline for the treatment of anaphylaxis: Cochrane systematic review. Allergy, 64(2), 204.
  3. Simons, F.E. (2008). Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. BMJ, 336(7654), 1141.
  4. McLean-Tooke, A.P., Bethune, C.A., Fay, A.C., & Spickett, G.P. (2003). Adrenaline in the treatment of anaphylaxis: what is the evidence? BMJ, 327, 1332.
  5. Lieberman, P.,Decker, W., Camargo, C.A. Jr., Oconnor, R., Oppenheimer, J., & Simons, F.E. (2007). SAFE: a multidisciplinary approach to anaphylaxis education in the emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 98(6), 519-23. 
 

Further Reading

Cite this article as: Nada Radulovic, "SAFE-BBOP! – A mnemonic for anaphylaxis management in the emergency department," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, December 11, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/12/11/a-mnemonic-for-anaphylaxis-management/, date accessed: February 29, 2020

Open fracture! Antibiotic choice.

ERic Motorcycle accident

A 20-year-old male presents to your ED with a 5 cm wound after he fell off his motorbike. On physical exam, the wound overlays a fractured left tibia but does not show extensive soft tissue damage nor any signs of periosteal stripping or vascular injury. 

Which antibiotic should you give to this patient?

To learn more about it, read chapters below.

Read "Scores" Chapter
Read "Lower Extremity Injuries" Chapter

Quick Read

Gustilo-Anderson Classification

Gustilo-Anderson classification is used for fractures with open wounds and antibiotic coverage.

Gustilo-Anderson Classification

TypeDefinition
Type IOpen fracture, clean wound, wound <1cm in length
Type IIOpen fracture, wound >1cm in length without extensive soft tissue damage, flaps, avulsions
Type IIIOpen fracture with extensive soft tissue laceration, damage, or loss or an open segmental fracture. This type also includes open fractures caused by farm injuries, fractures requiring vascular repair, or fractures that have been open for 8 hours prior to treatment.
Type III AType III fracture with adequate periosteal coverage of the fractured bone despite extensive soft tissue laceration or damage
Type III BType III fracture with extensive soft tissue loss and periosteal stripping and bone damage. Usually associated with massive contamination. It will often need further soft tissue coverage procedure (i.e. free or rotational flap).
Type III CType III fracture associated with arterial injury requiring repair, irrespective of degree of soft tissue injury

According to the above classification, each class should receive the following antibiotics:

  • Type I: 1st generation cephalosporin
  • Type II: 1st generation Cephalosporin +/- Gentamycin
  • Type III: 1st generation Cephalosporin + Gentamycin +/- Penicillin

To learn more about it, read chapters below.

Read "Scores" Chapter
Read "Lower Extremity Injuries" Chapter

Pain Relief

Healthcare providers should have a sound understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and psychology of addictive behaviors. A focused history and examination should concentrate on items that can indicate inconsistencies or falsifications associated with inappropriate drug-seeking behavior. It was always difficult as a decision has to be made between “losing” to drug seekers and denying analgesia to patients who are genuinely in need. It is best to give patients the benefit of the doubt with due diligence.

from iEM's Drugs for Pain Relief chapter Tweet

"Drugs for pain relief' chapter written by Nik Ahmad Shaiffudin Nik Him and Azizul Fadzi was added into the content list.