Journal Club 3/21/22: Mental Health in the International Community

Prevalence of burnout among university students in low- and middle- income countries: a systematic review and meta analysis - presented by Jonathan Kajjimu

Burnout is a form of distress that manifests with features of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal/professional accomplishment. Emotional exhaustion or unsuccessful coping with stressors, is the fatigued feeling that develops as one’s emotional energies are drained. Depersonalization refers to a student’s indifference, negative or cynical attitude. Reduced personal accomplishment is a negative self-evaluation of one’s abilities which manifests itself with feelings of failure. University education is an intrinsically demanding time which puts university students at risk for burnout, coupled with other burnout risk factors such as individual/personal factors and extracurricular factors. Burnout causes significant physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual damage to students.  

However, from this article there had been paucity of and discrepancies in data on the overall prevalence of burnout in university students from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Students pursuing health-related programs in mostly high-income countries (HICs) had been mostly studied previously.

In this review, 55 articles were included, with a total of 27,940 (female: 16,215, 58.0%) university students from 24 LMICs. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was found to be the most widely used tool for measuring burnout in 43 studies (78.2%). The pooled prevalence of burnout was 12.1% (95% CI: 11.9–12.3; p = < 0.001). Pooled significant prevalence of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced personal/professional efficacy were 27.8% (95% CI 27.4–28.3), 32.6% (95% CI: 32.0– 33.1), & 29.9% (95% CI: 28.8–30.9) respectively. Burnout pooled prevalence was highest among the African region at 35.4%, followed by the Asian region at 30.2%, and the European region at 20.7%. 


Figure 1: Forest plot for the prevalence of burnout in LMICs

In this review, burnout rates found in LMICS were lower than those in HICs, which the author believed to be due to publication bias. Authors further recommended low cost interventions that were needed more in low income countries than in middle income countries for managing burnout. These included mindfulness practices, yoga exercises, and group discussions. The current COVID-19 pandemic was also highlighted as having been found to put university students at a higher risk of burnout. Consequences of burnout in students include absenteeism, drop out, reduced academic performance, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, suicide, professional impairment and dissatisfaction, increased incidence of errors and near-misses.

Discussion Questions:

  • How can medical schools focus more on mental health of medical students?
  • How can we ensure that medical students always have their wellbeing in check? 
  • Do you think medical students actually get burnt out or are they just morally injured?

Some of the great recommendations received were having wellness days, “Opt out sessions”, and free counselling sessions in medical school for openly bringing out mental health issue discussions. However, one student confidently believed it would be difficult for schools to focus on mental health of students despite other discussants’ optimism.

Med students can: Focus on reducing energy drain. Identify what you can change – and what you can’t.  Align your goals, values and beliefs. Set limits and delegate. Create new challenges that are aligned with your values. Give yourself frequent breaks. Seek support. Monitor your energy level and emotional state. Eat energy and brain foods. Pace yourself. Build problem-solving skills. Lighten the situation with humor. Having regular physical exercise. 

Medical schools can: Advocate for student autonomy i.e. ability to influence student environment and schedule control. Provide adequate support services such as counselling, secretarial, administrative, social work, and financial. Encourage collegial work environments, healthy relationships and sharing of common goals. Minimize school-home interference. Promote proper work-life balance. Ensure vacation time and limit overtime. Establish mentoring. Consider periodic sabbaticals.

Kaggwa MM, Kajjimu J, Sserunkuma J, Najjuka SM, Atim LM, Olum R, et al. (2021) Prevalence of burnout among university students in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0256402. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0256402

Mental Health in the International Community - Presented by Alexander Gallaer

Mental illness is a topic that is still gaining awareness, acceptance, and understanding in many parts of the world. While western medicine, most notably the DSM-V, has sought to carefully categorize and define mental disease, the definition of what constitutes mental illness is still very much disputed globally. Unfortunately, many global populations may suffer from unaddressed mental health struggles as a result of these varying attitudes. Notably, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as defined by the DSM-V, is a disease that has an enormous global burden. As emergency physicians increasingly become the sole health care providers, especially in marginalized populations, it is important to have awareness of what groups may need special attention or follow up to diagnose or address underlying PTSD. Some of these groups include male military veterans (lifetime prevalence of 30.9% (1)), emergency healthcare providers (up to 15.8% (2)), and, most notably here, refugee populations (up to 62% in some Cambodian cohorts (3)). Early recognition of symptoms and swift referral of patients to mental health services as soon as symptoms are identified could alleviate long term disease burden and lead to improved outcomes (4). Because refugee populations are high risk, providers can consider routinely screening for symptoms.

Discussion Questions:

  • How would you approach treating a mental health crisis in an individual who does not believe such issues exist, or that such disease processes can affect them?
  • How can we raise awareness of PTSD in populations with traditionally low recognition of mental illness? Should we do this?

References:

1) Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593.

2) Bahadirli S, Sagaltici E. Post-traumatic stress disorder in healthcare workers of emergency departments during the pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Dec;50:251-255. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.08.027. Epub 2021 Aug 14. PMID: 34416516.

3) Marshall GN, Schell TL, Elliott MN, Berthold SM, Chun CA. Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States.JAMA. 2005;294(5):571.

4) Fanai M, Khan MAB. Acute Stress Disorder. [Updated 2021 Jul 17]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-

The Unique Challenges of Mental Health and Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis- Presented by Ellen Chiang

Calculating disability adjusted life years (DALY) aims to quantify disease burden in terms of both mortality and morbidity. This calculation is an important tool in global health work and as with all tools, it has limitations. Attempts to quantify disability from mental health disorders demonstrate the constraints of the DALY. 

Our understanding and definition of what classifies a mental illness is influenced by our sociocultural context. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is therefore impacted by politics and prejudice. While DALY calculations include sex and gender as weighted factors, many other social factors are not considered. Additionally, much of the medical research published in the major psychiatric journals center on Euro-American study populations, which limits the cross-cultural application of findings. 

Without full consideration of what is not captured by our quantitative measurement of choice, global health interventions can have unintended, significant consequences. The book chapter highlights this by discussing the emergence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDTRB) from the implementation of the DOTS protocol in Peru, which was supported largely by the cost effectiveness paradigm. 

Global health experts should understand the limitations of the DALY when using it to identify priorities and create and evaluate interventions. Remaining aware of what falls outside of the DALY can help create more context appropriate health interventions and new measurements that factor in important social dimensions of disease burden

Discussion Questions:

  • Is it possible to create a metric for disease burden that accounts for social context?
  • When implementing a large-scale health intervention, what are some ways to maintain the flexibility needed to address unexpected challenges?

References:

Ji, Jianlin, Arthur Kleinman, and Anne Becker. “Suicide in Contemporary China: A Review of China’s Distinctive Suicide Demographics in Their
Sociocultural Context.” Harvard Review of Psychiatry 9, no. 1 (2001): 1– 12.

Anand, Sudhir, and Kara Hanson. “Disability-Adjusted Life Years: A Critical Review.” Journal of Health Economics 16, no. 6 (1997): 685– 702.

Sen, Amartya. “Missing Women: Social Inequality Outweighs Women’s Survival Advantage in Asia and North Africa.” British Medical Journal 304, no. 6827 (1992): 587– 588.

Wrap up!

We thoroughly enjoyed the discussion sparked by these three mentees and are proud to be to present a brief summary of their work here! Please stay tuned for more article summaries and details about our upcoming meetings.  Connect with us through one of our contact options listed below if you are interested in attending!

Thank you to our authors and presenters!

Jonathan Kajjimu, MS5

Jonathan Kajjimu, MS5

Mbarara University of Science and Technology

Alexander Gallaer, MS4

University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Ellen Chiang, MS4

Ellen Chiang, MS4

UNC Chapel Hill

Jeff Downen, MD, MS

Jeff Downen, MD, MS

PGY-2 University of Florida, Jacksonville
Blog Editor

Keep in Touch:

Cite this article as: Global EM Student Leadership Program, "Journal Club 3/21/22: Mental Health in the International Community," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, January 25, 2023, https://iem-student.org/2023/01/25/journal-club-3-21-22-mental-health-in-the-international-community/, date accessed: January 30, 2023

Journal Club 1/10+1/31/21: Sustainability and Language Justice

Tropical Diarrheal Illnesses in Children by Ying Ku

Tropical diarrheal illnesses (TDIs) are major health concerns around the world, especially in resource-limiting countries, resulting in approximately 500,000 child deaths annually. TDI is a gastrointestinal infection caused by pathogens that are prevalent in the tropical regions, with diarrhea being the main presentation. Most commonly, these diseases are spread by contaminated food and water due to inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Among various microorganisms that can result in TDIs, Rotavirus and E. coli are the most common agents causing moderate to severe diarrhea in children in resource-limiting countries. Some common signs and symptoms are diarrhea, nausea &amp; vomiting, cramps, fatigue, fever, and chills. However, TDIs may result in death secondary to severe dehydration. When assessing TDI patients, it is crucial to determine  dehydration status and identify the type of diarrhea (watery or dysentery) given the different treatment approach. The most important treatment is rehydration with oral rehydration salts (ORS). ORS can be made with: 1 L water + ½ tsp salt + 6 tsp sugar. The more detailed treatment algorithm can be found in the Clinical Care Guideline for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Strategies in preventing TDIs can be summarized into blocking common transmission factors such as feces, fingers, flies, fields, fluids, and food via proper sanitation and hygiene. Lastly, we can help with this global health concern via donation/fundraiser for the organizations working to improve access to safe drinking water and sanitation, as well as being involved in projects to help develop prevention and control strategies in different locations.

Discussion Questions:

  • What are the challenges in promoting better hygiene in developing countries?
  • Despite the widespread use of ORS, mortality associated with severe dehydration in children remains significant. What are some factors contributing to this challenge?

Language Barriers and Epistemic Injustice in Healthcare Settings by Savanna Hoyt

  • Introduction
    • Language injustice is one of the most significant challenges facing national health systems.
    • Language barriers between patients and practitioners can have significant adverse impacts on quality of care.
    • Every phase of the healthcare process relies on effective communication.
  • Language and Healthcare: Complex Dynamics
    • In diverse societies, healthcare challenges stem from the fact that while language is a human commonality, it manifests through a wide range of languages.
    • Culture influences every aspect of illness, including interpretations of symptoms, explanations of illness, seeking help, adherence to treatment, and patient-provider relationships.
  • Linguistic Epistemic Injustice:
    • An example of testimonial injustice (misjudgement of how a person speaks), is when a patient and physician do not share a first language, but must communicate in it due to a lack of translation services.
    • Different concepts of illness across languages can result in hermeneutical injustice (misjudgement of what a person says).
  • Linguistic Epistemic Humility:
    • Linguistic epistemic injustice can be countered by linguistic epistemic humility.
    • In healthcare, epistemic humility involves becoming aware of your own capacities within your own language, with other languages, and actively searching for ways to overcome language barriers.
    • When considering patient-physician relationships across language barriers, the physician can facilitate positive relationships and deliver better care by recognizing their own language ability, acknowledging language needs of the patient, and attempting to correctly pronounce the patient’s name.
  • Conclusion
    • A more language-aware healthcare process can further advance the health of the general population, ensuring practice and research are carried out in a more equitable manner.

Discussion Points:

  • How can we as future physicians work towards eliminating language barriers in healthcare?
  • What are the possible outcomes of addressing language barriers in healthcare?

Social Forces and their Impact on Health Presented by Sreenidhi Vanyaa Manian

In medical school, we learn about the causes of various diseases usually falling into categories of infectious, genetic or immune-mediated processes. However, when it comes to causes often it is enclosed under the broader umbrella of social forces that impact health—defined as the social ‘determinants’ of health.  

“The unequal distribution of power, income, goods , services, globally and nationally, the consequent unfairness in the immediate visible circumstances of people’s lives-their access to healthcare, schools, and education , their conditions of work and leisure , their homes , communities, towns and cities – and their chances of leading flourishing life.”

We witness these social forces everyday and millions across the globe experience its impact on health. Insufficient food, inadequate safe water and discrimination based on race, gender and ethnicity are obstacles on the road to health. 

Rudolph Virchow investigated a typhus epidemic which he later called the ‘artificial epidemic’ as he identified the role played by factors such as lack of access to food, education, employment, as well as political isolation with the spread of disease rather than the microbe itself. 

“Medicine is a social science and politics (is) nothing but medicine on a grand scale”

Who LIVES? Who dies

Structural violence creates and perpetuates ill health, suffering and death. It is an unfair and evil entity that victimizes the underserved communities creating a lasting impact on their emotional, social, physical and mental well-being. Structural violence is inherently political and is fundamentally about resources and power. 

Poverty constrains choice, often in a brutal fashion.

 

Communities with lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher rates of accident, drug use depression and anxiety compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. 

In 1848 Rudolf Virchow identified the lasting impact of social forces on health. How do we combat this? The answer is biosocial approach to global health wherein the healthcare provider attempts to understand the patient’s experiences, including the social forces present in the life of the person; as well as the impact of illness in the context of his/her daily life. This necessitates a deep historical, political and social understanding of the community

We all have heard the quote “Health is Wealth.” But we must understand that some degree of wealth is required in order to attain health that gives people a fair chance on their journey to liberty, peace and the pursuit of happiness.  

Discussion Points:

  • Any social movements that you know that led to better chances for good health in your community?
  •  What will you suggest (given the power) to the government to mitigate adverse social determinants?
  • What do you think is the greatest barrier to achieve equitable health?
  • During history taking, what are the other questions that can be asked to the patient for a more holistic approach to treatment?

Wrap up!

As you can imagine, our mentees had a wonderful discussion surrounding these three topics! We are thrilled to be able to present a brief summary of their work here. Please stay tuned for details about our upcoming meetings.  Connect with us through one of our contact options listed below if you are interested in attending!

Thank you to our authors and presenters!

Ying Ku, MS3

Ying Ku, MS3

Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine

Savanna Hoyt, MS2

Savanna Hoyt, MS2

Northeast Ohio Medical University

Sreenidhi  M Vanyaa, MS4

Sreenidhi M Vanyaa, MS4

PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research

Halley J Alberts, PGY2

Halley J Alberts, PGY2

Blog Editorial Lead
University of South Carolina
Prisma Health Midlands

Keep in Touch:

Cite this article as: Global EM Student Leadership Program, "Journal Club 1/10+1/31/21: Sustainability and Language Justice," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, January 18, 2023, https://iem-student.org/2023/01/18/journal-club-1-101-31-21-sustainability-and-language-justice/, date accessed: January 30, 2023

Journal Club 11/08/21: Resource Equity in a Pandemic

The Global Burden of Schistosomiasis presented by Farah Mechref

Endemic in 74 countries across Africa, the Middle East, South America, and Asia, schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by flatworms or blood flukes known as schistosomes. About 440 million individuals are infected with these trematodes, which reside in the blood vessels of their definitive host and lead to different clinical manifestations depending on the species. In regions endemic for schistosomiasis, the most prevalent form of the disease is
chronic schistosomiasis, resulting from repeated immunological reactions to eggs trapped in organ tissues. Infection begins when individuals enter bodies of water that contain contaminated snails that have released infectious cercariae. These cercariae penetrate the skin of the human host and produce an allergic dermatitis at the site of entry or a “swimmer’s itch.” Antigens are then released from their eggs, which stimulates a granulomatous reaction composed of T cells, macrophages, and eosinophils, resulting in the clinical disease. 

Acute schistosomiasis typically presents with sudden onset of fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, fatigue, and abdominal pain lasting 2–10 weeks, with eosinophilia noted on lab findings. Chronic infection cause granulomatous reactions and fibrosis in affected organs, which results in clinical manifestations
that include: 

-In S. mansoni and S. japonicum: upper abdominal discomfort that then shows palpable, nodular hepato-spenlomegaly with eventual development of portal hypertension from fibrosis of portal vessels and resulting ascites and hematemesis from lethal esophageal varices.

-In S. haematobium: hematuria, which is so endemic that it’s thought to be a natural sign of puberty for boys and confused with menses in girls, with eventual development of squamous-cell carcinoma of the bladder.

Currently, the only control measures available include (1) mass treatment with Praziquantel (Biltricide) in communities where schistosomiasis is endemic, (2) introduction of public hygiene programs to provide safe water supplies and sanitary disposal of stool and urine, (3) snail eradication programs using molluscicides, and (4) vaccination development to create a more durable and sustained reduction in transmission.

Discussion Questions:

  • Knowledge of transmission and preventative measures play an important role in schistosomiasis control, what other endemic conditions could be better tackled with improved patient education?
  • With 230 million actively infected patients and another 200 million with latent infections, is a vaccine worth the resource distribution or should funding go towards expanding the anti-parasitic classes available for treatment? 

Resource Equity in a Disease Outbreak by Alison Neely

The Ebola virus disease of 2013-2016, centered in West Africa, was considered one of the most threatening cases of infectious disease outbreak in modern history up until the emergence of Covid-19 in 2019. Due to the high case fatality rate of Ebola, the core element of the outbreak response was effective case identification and rapid isolation; treatment centers were quickly overwhelmed and experienced limited bed supply and staff time. A study drawing from interviews with senior healthcare personnel involved in this Ebola outbreak response aimed to identify the ethical issues involved in such a response and to create a framework of ethical guiding principles for future responses.

The framework proposed after analysis of the participants’ interviews was split into four categories: community engagement, experimental therapeutic interventions, clinical trial designs and informed consent. Community engagement stood out as a key element both in the framework and in the journal club discussion that followed. Engagement can include promotion of collaboration and open dialogue, incorporation of community insights into decision-making processes, encouragement of transparency, building trust, and reflecting on context-specific cultural values. As future physicians with special interest in global medicine, these ideas of respecting cultural context and complete inclusion of the local community in response efforts were highlighted as very relevant to our future practice.

Discussion Points:

  • Have the principles presented here been followed in the global response to the Covid-19 pandemic?
  • Our discussion also focused on the parallels and differences between this Ebola response and the global response to the Covid-19 pandemic, calling attention to the ways that the response both followed and diverged from the framework presented in this article. As the idea of a disease outbreak has become part of daily conversation in the last 2 years, investigations and discussions such as this will become increasingly relevant and important. We also touched on the idea that our global response to Covid-19 may have been very different, and potentially weaker, if the Ebola outbreak had not occurred when it did.
 

Wrap up!

As you can imagine, our mentees had a wonderful discussion surrounding these three topics! We are thrilled to be able to present a brief summary of their work here. Please stay tuned for details about our upcoming meetings.  Connect with us through one of our contact options listed below if you are interested in attending!

Thank you to our authors and presenters!

Farah Mechref, MS4

Farah Mechref, MS4

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Alison Neely, MS4

Alison Neely, MS4

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Keep in Touch:

Cite this article as: Global EM Student Leadership Program, "Journal Club 11/08/21: Resource Equity in a Pandemic," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, January 12, 2023, https://iem-student.org/2023/01/12/journal-club-11-08-21-resource-equity-in-a-pandemic/, date accessed: January 30, 2023

Video – EM Education in India – Medical Students

This blog post includes one of the presentations of Emergency Medicine Education in Asia Webinar organized by Asian Society for Emergency Medicine on July 9, 2022. 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Oceania

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

 

 

 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Gulf

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

 

 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team North America

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Central and South America

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

Emergency Medicine Perspectives of Students – North America

Dear EM family,

The International Emergency Medicine Education Project (iem-student.org) has completed three years. As you may know, the iEM Education project aims to promote Emergency Medicine and provides copyright-free resources to students and educators around the world. Now we have reached more than 200 countries. We would like to thank again our contributors. Without them, such a project would not be possible. This experience has shown us once again how passionate our international EM community is to help and teach each other.

In May 2021, we started the fourth year of this journey. To celebrate, we are pleased to announce alive activity series, Emergency Medicine Perspectives of Students Around the World. Our guests for the third session are Kayla M. Ferguson, Brenda M. Varriano, and Dr. Halley J. Alberts.

Together, we can understand the experiences and needs of medical students from different backgrounds and discuss potential solutions.

Here are the video and audio records of this session. 

Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Emergency Medicine Perspectives of Students – North America," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, May 23, 2022, https://iem-student.org/2022/05/23/emergency-medicine-perspectives-of-students-north-america/, date accessed: January 30, 2023

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Europe

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Asia

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee

 

IFEM Medical Student Symposium – Team Africa

Dear medical students and EM community,

We invite you to the IFEM Medical Student Symposium, the first of its kind, to discuss the present and future of undergraduate emergency medicine education. The IFEM Medical Student Symposium will bring together speakers, facilitators, and attendees from seven regions of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Europe, the Gulf, North America, and Oceania. You can find more details on the flyer below.

It will take place on June 14th, 2022, at 13:30 AEST (GMT +10). The symposium fee is 10 AUD. Thanks to IFEM leadership and the ICEM organising committee, participants intending to join the Medical Student Symposium only can use this link on the workshop page to register without an additional conference fee.

Please share this blogpost with your colleagues and trainees who might be interested in joining this conversation. We are looking forward to meeting you all virtually at the symposium.

Best regards,
Dr Elif Dilek Cakal & Dr Erin Simon
IFEM Medical Student Symposium Co-leads
IFEM Core Curriculum and Education Committee