Question Of The Day #66

question of the day
40.1 - Pneumothorax 1

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis of this patient’s condition?

This man presents to the Emergency Department with pleuritic chest pain, shortness of breath after a penetrating chest injury. He has tachypnea and low oxygen saturation on exam, but he is not hypotensive or tachycardic.  The first step in evaluating any trauma patient involves the primary survey.  The primary survey is also known as the “ABCDEFs” of trauma.  This stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure, and FAST exam (Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma).  Each letter should be assessed in alphabetical order to avoid missing a time sensitive life-threatening condition.  The primary survey should be conducted prior to taking a full history.  After the primary survey, a more detailed physical exam (secondary survey) is conducted, followed by interventions and a focused patient history. 

This patient should immediately be given supplemental oxygen for his low oxygen saturation.  The history of penetrating chest trauma and hypoxemia also should raise concern for a traumatic pneumothorax, and oxygen supplementation is part of the treatment for all pneumothoraces.  The patient’s chest X-ray shows a large left sided pneumothorax indicated by the absence of left sided lung markings.  There is some left to right deviation of the heart and the primary bronchi.  There is no large left sided pleural effusion in the costodiaphragmatic recess to indicate a pneumo-hemothorax.  There is also no deviation of the trachea, hypotension, or tachycardia to indicate a tension pneumothorax (Choice B).  The patient is hemodynamically stable, so he cannot be in hemorrhagic shock (Choice A) or have cardiac tamponade (Choice C).  Although the pneumothorax is large with mild deviation of the heart, the lack of hemodynamic instability supports the diagnosis of a traumatic non-tension pneumothorax (Choice D).  The treatment for this would include 100% oxygen supplementation and placement of a chest tube.  A CT scan of the chest is more sensitive imaging test than a chest X-ray and should be considered to evaluate for additional injuries (blood vessel injuries, rib fractures, etc.). Correct Answer: D

References

Cite this article as: Joseph Ciano, USA, "Question Of The Day #66," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, December 3, 2021, https://iem-student.org/2021/12/03/question-of-the-day-66/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

Question Of The Day #65

question of the day
Longitudinal Orientation

Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management for this patient’s condition?

This patient arrives in the Emergency Department after an assault with penetrating abdominal trauma and is hemodynamically stable on exam.  The first step in evaluating any trauma patient involves the primary survey.  The primary survey is also known as the “ABCDEFs” of trauma.  This stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure, and FAST exam (Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma).  Each letter should be assessed in alphabetical order to avoid missing a time sensitive life-threatening condition.  The primary survey should be conducted prior to taking a full history.  After the primary survey, a more detailed physical exam (secondary survey) is conducted, followed by interventions and a focused patient history. 

The FAST exam is a quick sonographic exam that requires the practitioner to look at 4 anatomical areas for signs of internal injuries.  The 4 areas are the right upper abdominal quadrant, left upper abdominal quadrant, pelvis, and subxiphoid (cardiac) areas.  The addition of views for each lung (1 view for each lung) is known as an E-FAST, or extended FAST exam.  The presence of an anechoic (black) stripe on ultrasound indicates the presence of free fluid.  In the setting of trauma, free fluid is assumed to be blood.  The presence of free fluid on a FAST exam is considered a “positive FAST exam”.   This patient has no free fluid between the right kidney and liver.  There also is no free fluid above the diaphragm to indicate a hemothorax. The question stem notes that all other FAST exam views are nonremarkable.  Therefore, this patient has a negative FAST exam.  See labelling of the FAST exam image below.

An exploratory laparotomy (Choice A) would be indicated in a patient with penetrating or blunt trauma, a positive FAST exam, and hemodynamic instability. This patient has a negative FAST exam and is hemodynamically stable.  Packed red blood cell infusion (Choice B) would be indicated in the setting of hemodynamic instability and trauma, as this is assumed to be hemorrhagic shock.  This patient is not tachycardic or hypotensive. A urinalysis to check for hematuria (Choice D) may be a helpful adjunctive investigation to evaluate for renal or bladder injury, but it is not the most crucial next step in management. Performing a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis (Choice C) is the best next step as the patient is hemodynamically stable with a negative FAST exam and a penetrating abdominal injury.  The CT scan will help further evaluate for any internal injuries that may require operative repair.  See the algorithm below for further detail on an abdominal trauma work flow. Correct Answer: C

undifferentiated trauma patient
undifferentiated trauma patient

References

Cite this article as: Joseph Ciano, USA, "Question Of The Day #65," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 26, 2021, https://iem-student.org/2021/11/26/question-of-the-day-65/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

Question Of The Day #63

Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management for this patient’s condition?

This patient presents to the Emergency Department after a high-speed motor vehicle accident in the setting of alcohol intoxication.  On examination, he is intoxicated with a GCS of 14 (normal GCS is 15).  The first step in evaluating any trauma patient involves the primary survey.  The primary survey is also known as the “ABCDEFs” of trauma.  This stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure, and FAST exam (Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma).  Each letter should be assessed in alphabetical order to avoid missing a time sensitive life-threatening condition.  The primary survey should be conducted prior to taking a full history.

After the primary survey, a more detailed physical exam (secondary survey) is conducted, followed by interventions and a focused patient history.  This patient is intoxicated but is awake with a patent airway. Endotracheal intubation (Choice C) is not indicated.  Neurosurgical consultation (Choice D) is also not indicated at this stage as there is no concrete information to indicate a surgical emergency.  CT imaging may demonstrate a cervical spine fracture or intracerebral bleeding, but these results are not provided by the question stem.  A CT scan of the head without contrast (Choice B) is a reasonable test for this patient given his significant mechanism of injury and intoxication on exam.  However, both a CT scan of the head and cervical spine (Choice A) should be ordered due to the patient’s intoxication creating an unreliable physical exam.  Alcohol intoxication or drug use can alter a patient’s ability to sense pain and provide accurate information.  The presence of intoxication should always raise awareness for possible occult injuries. 

Of note, intoxication and altered mental status are indications to perform a CT scan of the cervical spine based on a well-validated decision-making tool known as the NEXUS criteria (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study).  Other criteria on the NEXUS tool that support CT cervical spine imaging are midline spinal tenderness, the presence of a focal neurologic deficit, or the presence of a distracting injury (i.e., femur fracture). The Canadian C-Spine Rule and Canadian CT Head Rule are other validated decision-making tools to help a clinician decide on whether or not to order CT head or cervical spine imaging. Correct Answer: A

References

Cite this article as: Joseph Ciano, USA, "Question Of The Day #63," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 12, 2021, https://iem-student.org/2021/11/12/question-of-the-day-63/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

Question Of The Day #62

627.15 - Figure 15 - lentiform epidural hematoma in the right hemisphere

Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis for this patient’s condition?

This patient presents to the Emergency Department after a high-speed motor vehicle accident.  On examination, he is tachycardic, mildly tachypneic, and has an altered mental status (somnolent).  The first step in evaluating this trauma patient involves the primary survey.  The primary survey is also known as the “ABCDEFs” of trauma.  This stands for Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure, and FAST exam (Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma).  Each letter should be assessed in alphabetical order to avoid missing a time sensitive life-threatening condition.  The primary survey should be conducted prior to taking a full history.

After the primary survey, a more detailed physical exam (secondary survey) is conducted, followed by interventions and a focused patient history.  A noncontrast CT scan of the head is a reasonable test for this patient given his significant mechanism of injury and altered mental status on exam.  The CT scan shows a hyperdense (white) biconvex area on the right side of the brain.  This white area indicates the presence of fresh blood on the CT scan.  Keep in mind that CT scans are read as if you are looking up from the patient’s feet to their head.  This means left-right directionality is reversed.  See image below.

A hyperdense area with a sickled or crescent-shaped appearance would indicate an acute subdural hemorrhage (Choice A).  This is caused by tearing of the cerebral bridging veins.  Hyperdense areas throughout the brain tissue itself would indicate an intraparenchymal hemorrhage (Choice B).  Hyperdense areas around the sulci of the brain and a starfish appearance would indicate a subarachnoid hemorrhage (Choice D). Subarachnoid bleeding is caused by rupturing of a brain aneurysm or an arteriovenous (AV) malformation.  Subarachnoid bleeding can also be associated with trauma. 

This patient’s CT image shows an epidural hemorrhage (Choice C), indicated by the biconvex lens shaped area of blood.  This is caused by tearing of the middle meningeal artery.  Treatment of all types of intracranial bleeding involves general supportive care, airway management (i.e., endotracheal intubation for GCS < 8), elevating the head of the bed to 30 degrees to lower intracranial pressure (ICP), managing pain and sedation (lowers ICP), blood pressure maintenance (goal SBP <140mmHg), reversal of coagulopathy, neurosurgical evaluation for possible operative intervention, and providing ICP lowering treatments (mannitol or hypertonic 3% NaCl) when concerned about elevated ICP or brain herniation.

References

Cite this article as: Joseph Ciano, USA, "Question Of The Day #62," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 5, 2021, https://iem-student.org/2021/11/05/question-of-the-day-62/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

iEM Image Feed: Gallbladder Stone

iem image feed

A 35-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with right upper quadrant pain of two hours duration. She awoke several hours after eating a large meal. Based on increasing pain and nausea she presents for evaluation. She denies vomiting, fever or dysuria. Her past history is notable for diet-controlled type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and essential hypertension. Her BMI is 33. Her only medication is lisinopril 10 mg daily. She has never had surgery. Her social history is unremarkable. She neither drinks alcohol nor uses tobacco. She has begun to diet and reports recent weight loss.

Her temperature is 37ºC, blood pressure: 110/70 mmHg, pulse: 90 beats per minute. Physical exam reveals an overweight female in mild distress secondary to right upper quadrant pain. She cannot find a position of comfort and describes the pain as similar to labor pains. Pertinent exam findings include: chest exam normal, cardiac exam normal, abdominal exam demonstrates normal bowel sounds and no rebound in any quadrant. She has guarding to inspiration with palpation over the gallbladder (positive Murphy’s sign). Rectal exam normal, stool is hemoccult negative for blood. Pertinent lab values: glucose 110 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase 120 U/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 25 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 25 U/L, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 20 U/L, direct bilirubin 0.1 mg/dL, total bilirubin 0.5 mg/dL, lipase 20 U/L.

The emergency physician performs a focused right upper quadrant ultrasound and finds gallstones without associated gallbladder wall thickening or pericholecystic fluid. In addition, the patient has a “sonographic Murphy sign”: there is maximal abdominal tenderness when the ultrasound probe is pressed over the visualized gallbladder.

79 - gall bladder stone

Further reading

Cite this article as: iEM Education Project Team, "iEM Image Feed: Gallbladder Stone," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, April 21, 2021, https://iem-student.org/2021/04/21/iem-image-feed/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

Pathological Brain CT Findings – Illustration

Pathological Brain CT Findings

In this post, we will share the traumatic (Epidural, subdural, cerebral contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral edema) and atraumatic (intracranial parenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage) brain computerized tomography (CT) findings. We will also provide GIF images and one final image, which includes all pathologies in one image.

ATRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS

TRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS

ATRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS – GIF

TRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS  – GIF

PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS  – ONE POST

References and Further Reading

  1. https://iem-student.org/2019/09/04/cranial-ct-anatomy-a-simple-image-guide-for-medical-students/
  2. The Atlas of Emergency Radiology
Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, Turkey, "Pathological Brain CT Findings – Illustration," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 18, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/11/18/pathological-brain-ct-findings-illustration/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

19 Questions and Answers on the COVID-19 Pandemic from a Emergency Medicine-based Perspective

covid 19 - from a Emergency Medicine-based Perspective

1) What is COVID-19?

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

2) What is SARS-CoV-2?

SARS-CoV-2 is a virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family. Spike proteins (S proteins) on the outer surface of SARS-CoV-2 are arranged in a way that resembles the appearance of a crown when viewed under an electron microscope (see Figure 1). S proteins facilitate viral entry into host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor. Several cell types express the ACE2 receptor, including lung alveoli cells. [1].

Morphology of the SARS-CoV-2
Figure 1 - Morphology of the SARS-CoV-2 viewed under an electron microscope.Note the spikes that adorn the outer surface of the virus, which impart the look of a corona surrounding the virion. (https://phil.cdc.gov/Details.aspx?pid=23312)

3) How is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted?

Viral particles can spread from person-to-person through airborne transmission (e.g., large droplets) or direct contact(e.g., touching, shaking hands). We have to remember that large droplets are particles with a diameter > 5 microns and that they can be spread by coughing, sneezing, talking, etc., so do not forget to wear full PPE in the Emergency Department (ED). Other potential routes of transmission are still being investigated.

4) What is the incubation time?

In humans, the incubation period of the SARS-CoV-2 varies from 4 days to 14 days, with a median of about 4 days [2].

5) Can we say the COVID-19 is like the seasonal flu?

No, we can’t say that. COVID-19 differs from the flu in several ways:

  • First of all, SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the lower respiratory tract at the level of the pulmonary alveoli (terminal alveoli). In contrast, Influenza viruses, the causative agents of the flu, replicate in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract.
  • Secondly, SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus that has never met our adaptive immune system.
  • Thirdly, we do not currently have an approved vaccine to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2.
  • Lastly, we do not currently have drugs of proven efficacy for the treatment of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.

6) Who is at risk of contracting the COVID-19?

We are all susceptible to contracting the COVID-19, so it is essential that everyone respects the biohazard prevention rules developed by national and international health committees. Elderly persons, patients with comorbidities (e.g., diabetics, cancer, COPD, and CVD), and smokers appear to exhibit poor clinical outcome and greater mortality from COVID-19 [3]

7) What are the symptoms of the COVID-19?

There are four primary symptoms of COVID-19: feverdry coughfatigue; and shortness of breath (SOB).

Other symptoms are loss of appetite, muscle and joint pain, sore throat, nasal congestion and runny nose, headache, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, anosmia, and dysgeusia.

8) What is the severity of symptoms from COVID-19?

In most cases, COVID-19 mild or moderate symptoms, so much so it can resolve after two weeks of rest at home. However, onset of severe viral pneumonia requires hospital admission.

9) Which COVID-19 patients we should admit to the hospital?

The onset of severe viral pneumonia requires hospital admission. COVID-19-associated pneumonia can quickly evolve into respiratory failure, resulting in decreased gas exchange and the onset of hypoxia (we can already detect this deterioration in gas exchange with a pulse oximeter at the patient’s home). This clinical picture can rapidly further evolve into ARDS and severe multi-organ failure.

The use of the PSI/PORT score (or even the MuLBSTA score, although this score needs to be validated) can help us in the hospital admission decision-making process.

10) Do patients with COVID-19 exhibit laboratory abnormalities?

Most patients exhibit lymphocytopenia [11], an increase in prothrombin time, procalcitonin (> 0.5 ng/mL), and/or LDH (> 250 U/L).

11) Are there specific tests that allow us to diagnose COVID-19?

RT-PCR is a specific test that currently appears to have high specificity but not very high sensitivity [12]. We can obtain material for this test from nasopharyngeal swabs, tracheal aspirates of intubated patients, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL). However, the latter two procedures increase the risk of contagion.

However, since rapid tests are not yet available, RT-PCR results may take days to obtain, since laboratory activity can quickly saturate during epidemics. Furthermore, poor pharyngeal swabbing technique or sampling that occurs during the early stage of COVID-19 can lead to further decreased testing sensitivity.

Consequently, for the best patient care, we must rely on clinical symptoms, labs, and diagnostic imaging (US, CXR, CT). The use of a diagnostic flowchart can be useful (see Figure 2).

diagnostic flow chart
Figure 2 - A possible diagnostic flow chart for an ill patient admitted to hospital with suspected COVID-19 (from EMCrit Blog)

12) Can lung ultrasound help diagnose COVID-19?

Yes, it can help! The use of POCUS lung ultrasound is a useful method both in diagnosis and in real-time monitoring of the COVID-19 patient.

In addition, we could monitor the patient not only in the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU), but also in a pre-hospital setting, such as in the home of a patient who is in quarantine.

In fact, POCUS lung ultrasounds not only allows one to anticipate further complications such as lung consolidation from bacterial superinfection or pneumothorax, but it also allows detection of viral pneumonia at the early stages. Furthermore, the use of a high-frequency ultrasound probe, which is an adoption of the 12-lung areas method [4] and the portable ultrasound (they are easily decontaminated), allow this method to be repeatable, inexpensive, easy to transport, and radiation-free.

There are no known pathognomonic patterns of COVID-19.

The early stages COVID-19 pneumonia results in peripheral alveolar damage including alveolar edema and a proteinaceous exudate [5]. This interstitial syndrome can be observed via ultrasound by the presence of scattered B lines in a single intercostal space (see videos below).

Subsequently, COVID-19 pneumonia progression leads to what’s called “white lung”, which ultrasound represents as converging B lines that cover the entire area of the intercostal space; they start from the pleura to end at the bottom of the screen.

Finally, the later stages of this viral pneumonia lead to “dry lung”, which consists of a pattern of small consolidations (< 1 cm) and subpleural nodules. Unlike bacterial foci of infection, these consolidations do not create a Doppler signal within the lesions. We should consider the development from “white lung” to “dry lung” as an unfavorable evolution of the disease.[6]

(the 5 videos above come from the COVID-19 gallery on the Butterflynetwork website)

13) Can CXR/CT help us in the diagnosis of COVID-19?

Yes, it can help! There are essentially three patterns we observed in COVID-19.

In the early stages, the main pattern is ground-glass opacity (GGO)[7]. Ground glass opacity is represented at the lung bases with a peripheral distribution (see videos below) .

The second pattern is constituted by consolidations, which unlike ground-glass opacity, determine a complete “opacification” of the lung parenchyma. The greater the extent of consolidations, the greater the severity and the possibility of admission in ICU.

The third pattern is called crazy paving[8]. It is caused by the thickening of the pulmonary lobular interstitium.

However, we should consider four things when we do a CXR/CT exam. First, many patients, especially in the elderly, exhibit multiple, simultaneously occurring pathologies, so it is possible to clinically observe nodular effusions, lymph node enlargements, and pleural effusions that are not typical of COVID-19 pneumonia. Secondly, we have to be aware that other types of viral pneumonia can also cause GGO, so they cannot be excluded during the diagnostic process. Thirdly, imaging can help evaluate the extent of the disease and alternative diagnoses, but we cannot use it exclusively for diagnosis. Lastly, we should carefully assess the risk of contagion from transporting these patients to the CT room.

14) What is the treatment for this type of patient?

COVID-19 patients quickly become hypoxic without many symptoms (apparently due to “silent” atelectasis). Therapy for these clinical manifestations is resuscitation and support therapy. In patients with mild respiratory insufficiency, oxygen therapy is adopted. In severe patients in which respiratory mechanics are compromised, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive ventilation should be adopted.

15) How can we non-invasively manage the airways of patients with COVID-19?

In the presence of a virus epidemic, we should remember that all the procedures that generate aerosolization (e.g., NIV, HFNC, BMV, intubation, nebulizers) are high-risk procedures.

Among the non-invasive oxygenation methods, the best-recommended solution is to have patients wear both a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and a surgical mask[9]. Still, we should also consider using CPAP with a helmet interface. Furthermore, we should avoid the administration of medications through nebulization or utilize metered-dose inhalers with spacer (Figure 3).

Figure 3 – General schema for Respiratory Support in Patients with COVID-19 (from PulmCrit Blog)

16) How can we invasively manage the airways of patients with COVID-19?

We should intubate as soon as possible, even in non-critical conditions (Figure 3). Intubation is a high contagion risk procedure. As a result, we should adopt the highest levels of precaution[10]. To be more precise:

  • As healthcare operator, we should wear full PPE. Only the most skilled person at intubation in the staff should intubate. Furthermore we should consider using a video laryngoscope. Last but not least, we should ensure the correct positioning of the endotracheal tube without a stethoscope (link HERE).
  • The room where intubation occurs should be a negative pressure room. When that is not feasible, the room should have doors closed during the intubation procedure.
  • The suction device  should have a closed-circuit so as not to generate aerosolization outside.
  • Preoxygenation should be done using means that do not generate aerosols. Let us remember that HFNC and BVM both can generate aerosolization. So, it is important to remember to turn off the flow of the HFNC before removing it from the patient face to minimize the risk and to use a two-handed grip when using BVM, interposing an antiviral filter between the BVM and resuscitation bag and ventilating gently.
  • Intubation drugs that do not cause coughing should be used. In addition, we should evaluate the use of Rocuronium in the Rapid Sequence Intubation (RSI) since it has a longer half-life compared to succinylcholine and thus prevents the onset of coughing or vomiting.

In conclusion, let us remember that intubation, extubation, bronchoscopy, NIV, CPR prior to intubation, manual ventilation etc. produce aerosolization of the virus, therefore, it is necessary that we wear full PPE.

17) What is the drug therapy for COVID-19?

Currently, there is no validated drug therapy for COVID-19. Some drugs are currently under study. They include Remdesivir (blocks RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine (both block the entry of the virus into the endosome), Tocilizumab and Siltuximab (both block IL-6).

18) Is there a vaccine available for COVID-19?

No, there is still no vaccine currently available to the public.

19) What precautions should we take with COVID-19 infected patients?

As healthcare professionals, we should wear full personal protective equipment (PPE) and know how to wear them (“DONning”) and how to remove them properly (“DOFFing”) (see video below). Furthermore, we should wear full PPE for the entire shift and when in contact with patients with respiratory problems.

Resources on COVID-19

Cite this article as: Francesco Adami, Italy, "19 Questions and Answers on the COVID-19 Pandemic from a Emergency Medicine-based Perspective," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, March 27, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/03/27/19-questions-and-answers-on-the-covid-19/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

References

[1] Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. NatRev Cardiol. 2020 Mar 5.

[2] del Rio C, Malani PN. COVID-19—New Insights on a Rapidly Changing Epidemic. JAMA. Published online February 28, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3072

[3] Yee J et al. Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): Emergence and Implications for Emergency Care. Infectious Disease 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/emp2.12034

[4] Belaïd Bouhemad, Silvia Mongodi, Gabriele Via, Isabelle Rouquette; Ultrasound for “Lung Monitoring” of Ventilated Patients. Anesthesiology 2015;122(2):437-447. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000558.

[5] Qian-Yi Peng, Xiao-Ting Wang, Li-Na Zhang & Chinese Critical Care Ultrasound Study Group (CCUSG). Findings of lung ultrasonography of novel corona virus pneumonia during the 2019–2020 epidemic. 12 March 2020 Intensive Care Medicine.

[6]  Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020.

[7] Chest CT Findings in Cases from the Cruise Ship “Diamond Princess” with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

[8] Radiographic and CT Features of Viral Pneumonia Hyun Jung Koo, Soyeoun Lim, Jooae Choe, Sang-Ho Choi, Heungsup Sung, and Kyung-Hyun Do RadioGraphics 2018 38:3, 719-739 doi: https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.2018170048

[9]  WHO – Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected.

[10] Safe Airway Society. Consensus Statement: Safe Airway Society Principles of Airway management and Tracheal Intubation Specific to the COVID-19 Adult Patient Group. MJA 2020.

[11] GUAN WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, et al  Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 28. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032

[12] Tao Ai et al. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases. Radiology, published online February 26, 2020; doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020200642

Epidural Hematoma

epidural hematoma

Authors: Kilalo Maeli Mjema, Emergency Physician and Mugisha Clement, Neurosurgeon.

Case Presentation

A 34 years old male sustained a traumatic brain injury following a motor vehicle accident 3 hours before presentation to ED. BP: 117/69mmHg. HR: 84, RR: 18, SPO2: 99% in room air, T: 36.9.

Primary Survey

Airway: patent and protected
Breathing: bilateral equal air entry
Circulation: warm extremities, 1 second capillary refill time
Disability: alert and oriented, pupils 4mm bilaterally equally reactive to light, RBG 5.6 mmol/L
Exposure: raccoon right eye, bruises on the forehead and upper limbs

SAMPLE History

Signs and symptoms: mostly chest pain than the headache, nausea
Allergies: no known allergies
Medication: had received tramadol, dexamethasone, tetanus toxoid and some intravenous fluids before being referred to our facility
Past medical history: no known comorbid or any significant history
Event: sustained motor vehicle accident as a motorcycle driver with no helmet on 3 hours prior presentation, associated with a 20 minutes loss of consciousness. Attended at another facility where he regained his full consciousness, wounds dressed, medication given as above, E-FAST negative and CT imaging done. He remained conscious throughout and was transferred for neurosurgical observation and interventions.

Neuro-observation and continuous monitoring were planned. Blood samples sent for CBC, PT, aPTT, blood type and crossmatch. The neurosurgical review was done, and the patient was to be kept inpatient for close neurosurgical observation and interventions as needed.

Patient progress while still in the ED

In the course of stay in the ED, the patient started to vomit, became drowsier overtime, was moving mostly the right side of his limbs. The right pupil was 6-7mm non-reactive to light and GCS dropped to E1M4(Rt)V2

Vitals

BP 133/79 mmHg HR 39-45 bpm RR 14 rpm SPO2 99% in room air.

The patient was emergently transferred for repeat imaging and prepared for emergency craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. Theatre was informed and ready to receive the patient.

Rapid sequence induction and intubation 

  • Patient pre-oxygenated
  • Induction with iv ketamine 2mg/kg (weight 75kg)
  • Paralyzed with iv suxamethonium 100mg 
  • Intubated by sized 8 cuffed ETT

Mannitol 20g iv infusion was given over 10 minutes.

Intraoperative Findings and Progress

Right frontotemporoparietal craniotomy was done. Approximately 100 mls of hematoma because of spurting bleeding from the medial meningeal artery was found.  No other obvious identifiable bleeding was seen. Hemostasis was achieved and closed in layers with a drain. The patient had a complete neuro improvement, extubated at day 5 and discharged 9th day.

Clinical Pearls

  • The incidence of epidural hematoma is highest among adolescents and young adults
  • Most cases are a result of head trauma by traffic accidents, falls or assaults
  • Most commonly due to middle meningeal arterial bleed
  • Epidural hematoma does not cross suture margins but crosses dural attachments as a convex lens shaped appearance
  • Lucid intervals are seen in patients
  • Watch for raised intracranial pressure; ipsilateral dilated pupil, Cushing reflex, altered mentation, vomiting
  • Glucocorticoids have no role in reducing cerebral edema in traumatic brain injury
  • In the presence of epidural hematoma with the feature of herniation, mannitol can be given with caution that craniotomy and evacuation is going to be done immediately
  • Ketamine in RSII can still be considered in traumatic brain injury where blood pressures are not raised

Clinical Pearls

In the context of non-operative management, properly monitoring neurologic status and progress is the key factor to recognise early need of emergency medical intervention, re-imaging and neurosurgery.   

References and Further Reading

Cite this article as: Kilalo Mjema, "Epidural Hematoma," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, January 15, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/01/15/epidural-hematoma-2/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

I woke up like that! – Bilateral Shoulder Pain

bilateral shoulder pain

Case Presentation

A 35-year-old male presented to fast track complaining of bilateral severe shoulder pain for one-day duration. He reports waking up like that, and not being able to move his shoulders much due to the pain.

He denied any recent falls, injuries, or direct trauma to his shoulders. He also denied any fever, rashes, skin changes, headaches, numbness or weakness. No further findings found upon review of systems. Past medical history revealed a history of epilepsy. Otherwise, he’s not on any medications and denies any known allergies.

Physical examination showed slim male, with flattened anterior shoulders and normal inspection of the skin overlying his shoulders. He had internally rotated upper extremities, flexed elbows, and arms held in adduction. Upon attempts on any passive or active test of the range of motion, he experienced reluctance and pain on external rotation or abduction of his shoulders. Bilateral Shoulder X-rays were obtained.

shoulder dislocation and fracture 1
shoulder dislocation and fracture 2

This patient had bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation, with associated fractures.

    • Posterior shoulder dislocations make up 2-4% of shoulder dislocations.
    • May go undiagnosed and often missed on physical exam and imaging
    • Epileptic seizures or electrical shocks, sports injuries are the most common causes.
    • Subtle signs on AP X-Ray include:
        • Light Bulb Sign: Fixed internal rotation of the humeral head, makes the greater tuberosity anterior, giving a symmetrical appearance of the humeral head, that looks like a light bulb.
        • Empty Glenoid Sign: Humeral Head and Glenoid fossa widened articular space
        • Trough Sign: Vertical Line on AP, can indicate compression fracture of the humeral head medially.
    • In suspected Posterior Shoulder Dislocations, you should always get multiple views, including Anterior-Posterior (AP), scapular (Y), and Axillary Views.
    • Rounded posterior shoulder.
    • Prominent coracoid and acromion.
    • Palpable posterior humeral head.
    • Flattened anterior shoulder contour.
    • Neurovascular injuries
    • Rotator cuff tears
    • Osteonecrosis of the humeral head
    • Recurrent posterior shoulder instability or re-dislocation
    • Joint stiffness and post-traumatic osteoarthritis
    • You need to evaluate each case separately. The cases like this patient, with associated fractures, can complicate your management, and hence consulting orthopedic services would be advised, as surgical interventions should be evaluated.
    • If closed reduction fails, usually open reduction is pondered by subspecialty, especially in cases with extensive damage to the humeral head.
    • In cases with no associated fractures, the approach is the reduction of the dislocation. Most of them would require procedural sedation and analgesia.
    • Consider discussing options of procedural sedation and analgesia, with or without intraarticular blocks with your attending, for better and successful procedures, and minimal pain for your patient. The most convenient procedure options should also be discussed with patients, and consent should be taken. 
    • Patients would require pre and post-reduction neurovascular examination and X-rays.
    • Make sure your patient is examined again after the procedure, assessing the stability of the joint for regained full range of motion. 
    • Shoulder immobilization and follow up care plans with orthopedics services should be arranged.
    • Don’t forget, patients with known epilepsy, non-adherence or uncontrolled seizures have to be evaluated as well, and referred to appropriate neurology evaluation.

Case Reflections

  • Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations.
  • Bilateral fracture-dislocation is even rarer, with a few cases reported in the literature.
  • In the rare case of an asymmetrical bilateral dislocation, attention may be distracted to the more evident lesion, which is the anterior dislocation. This may lead to delayed diagnosis, especially in an unconscious patient in a post-ictal state.
  • In the present case, open reduction and internal fixation was performed.

References and Further Reading

  1. Roberts & Hedges Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine (6th ed) 2014. Philadelphia. Elsevier Saunders Inc. – Chapter 49
  2. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (7th ed) 2011. New York. McGraw Hill Companies Inc. – Chapter 268
  3. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice (8th ed) 2014. Philadelphia. Elsevier Saunders Inc. – Chapter 53
  4. Wikem – Posterior Shoulder dislocation: https://www.wikem.org/wiki/Posterior_shoulder_dislocation
  5. Canadiem – Posterior Shoulder Dislocation: Radiographic Evidence : https://canadiem.org/posterior-shoulder-dislocation-radiographic-evidence/ 
  6. Meena S, Saini P, Singh V, Kumar R, Trikha V. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4(2):499–501. doi:10.4103/0976-9668.117003S – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3783813/
  7. Sharma A, Jindal S, Narula MS, Garg S, Sethi A. Bilateral Asymmetrical Fracture Dislocation of Shoulder with Rare Combination of Injuries after Epileptic Seizure: A Case Report. Malays Orthop J. 2017;11(1):74–76. doi:10.5704/MOJ.1703.011 – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5393121/

Acknowledgement

Credit and acknowledgment for Dr. Eelaf Elhassan for sharing the case.

Cite this article as: Shaza Karrar, UAE, "I woke up like that! – Bilateral Shoulder Pain," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, December 13, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/12/13/bilateral-shoulder-pain/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

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Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, Turkey, "Hepatobiliary US Imaging – Illustrations," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 27, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/27/hepatobiliary-us-imaging-illustrations/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

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Case Presentation

A 24-years-old male with shortness of breath and chest pain presented to the emergency department. He was alert and oriented. Vitals were as follows; BP: 127/65 mmHg, HR: 101 beats per min, RR: 24 breaths per min, T: 37-degree celsius, SatO2: 94%. Physical examination revealed that normal breathing sounds on the left side, but decreased breath sounds on the right side of the chest. No JVD noted. Other examination findings were unremarkable.

Shortness of breath and chest pain started suddenly while he was playing soccer about 30 minutes ago. Since then, shortness of breath and chest pain increased. He has no known medical disease, allergy.

Bedside ultrasound revealed pneumothorax on the right.

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Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Massive Pneumothorax Without A Tension," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 25, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/25/massive-pneumothorax-without-a-tension/, date accessed: December 4, 2021

Torus Fracture – Diagnosed with ultrasound

torus fracture

Case Presentation

A 9-years old male patient brought to the ED by his parents because of the right forearm pain. The patient is alert, oriented, and moderately in distress. He described that he stepped on the ball and fell while playing soccer with his friends. He denies any other injury, loss of consciousness, etc.

Physical Exam

Torus Fracture - right arm 2

The patient complaints right forearm pain, especially distal 1/4 of the radius. There was no deformity or swelling recognized on inspection. 

Torus Fracture - right arm 1

The patient refuses any movement on the right arm because of pain during the movement, especially in rotational movements. He prefers to stay in the rest position, as shown in the picture.

There was no visible deformity and swelling in the inspection. However, the patient described palpation tenderness over the forearm, especially point tenderness over the distal 1/4 – 1/5 of the radius. The patient also described minimal pain on elbow and wrist movements. The neurovascular examination was unremarkable. There are no other findings regarding trauma. Patient parents deny any disease, medication, operation, etc. He has received 250 mg paracetamol in the school after consultation with the family. However, he still shows distress because of pain.

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In forearm fractures, its’ sensitivity is between 64 and 100%, its’ specificity is between 73-100% (Katzer et al., 2016). Besides, ultrasound provides 25 minutes earlier diagnosis advantage compared to other modalities, namely X-rays. Ultrasound’s effectiveness has elbow, been shown in many articles, its’ best performance is on diaphysis fractures of long bones (Weingberg et al., 2010).

After the detection of Torus (Buckle) fracture by ultrasound, the patient was sent to X-ray in order to investigate elbow, forearm and wrist in more detail. X-rays showed Torus fracture at the distal radius, which the diagnosis aligned with the ultrasound result.​

Torus Fracture - right arm 4

Torus Fracture - right arm 3

AP X-ray showed minor periosteal step-off/bulging on both sides. Lateral X-rays showed periosteal discontinuity with a 2-3 mm step-off on the dorsal side of the radius.

The final diagnosis of the patient was Torus (Buckle) fracture.

A long arm splint was applied in the ED because of his elbow and wrist pain. The patient discharged with pain medication, ice and elevation recommendations. On the 4th day, the patient visited the orthopedic clinic, and his splint changed to short arm splint. He was pain-free on the elbow and wrist.

References

  1. Schmid GL, Lippmann S, Unverzagt S, Hofmann C, Deutsch T, Frese T. The Investigation of Suspected Fracture-a Comparison of Ultrasound With Conventional Imaging. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017 Nov 10;114(45):757-764. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0757. PubMed PMID: 29202925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5729224.
  2. Katzer C, Wasem J, Eckert K, Ackermann O, Buchberger B. Ultrasound in the Diagnostics of Metaphyseal Forearm Fractures in Children: A Systematic Review and Cost Calculation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Jun;32(6):401-7. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000446. Review. PubMed PMID: 26087441.
  3. Weinberg ER, Tunik MG, Tsung JW. Accuracy of clinician-performed point-of-care ultrasound for the diagnosis of fractures in children and young adults. Injury. 2010 Aug;41(8):862-8. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2010.04.020. Epub 2010 May 13. PubMed PMID: 20466368.
 
Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Torus Fracture – Diagnosed with ultrasound," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 6, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/06/torus-fracture-diagnosed-with-ultrasound/, date accessed: December 4, 2021