In this post, we will share the traumatic (Epidural, subdural, cerebral contusion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral edema) and atraumatic (intracranial parenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage) brain computerized tomography (CT) findings. We will also provide GIF images and one final image, which includes all pathologies in one image.
ATRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS
TRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS
ATRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS – GIF
TRAUMATIC PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS – GIF
PATHOLOGICAL BRAIN CT FINDINGS – ONE POST
References and Further Reading
- The Atlas of Emergency Radiology
Patients with hypotension or shock have high mortality rates, and traditional physical exam techniques can be misleading. Diagnosis and initial care must be accurate and prompt to optimize patient care. Ultrasound is ideal for evaluating critically ill patients in shock, and ACEP guidelines now delineate a new category of ultrasound (US)– “resuscitative.” Bedside US allows for direct visualization of pathology and differentiation of shock states (1). The RUSH is one of the most commonly used protocols for this purpose.
The RUSH exam involves a 3-part bedside physiologic assessment simplified as “the pump,” “the tank,” and “the pipes” (2).
References and Further Reading
- By Organ System or Specialty Archives | Page 84 of 123 | ALiEM. https://www.aliem.com/category/emergency-medicine-clinical/system/page/84/
- Seif D1, Perera P, Mailhot T, Riley D, Mandavia D. “Bedside ultrasound in resuscitation and the rapid ultrasound in shock protocol” Crit Care Res Pract. 2012;2012:503254.
Ultrasound evaluation for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the 11 core ultrasound applications for emergency physicians as listed in the 2008 American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines (1). Because ultrasound applications started to be implemented into medical school curriculum in many countries, learning basic ultrasound applications as early as possible will benefit medical students and junior residents. In this post, I will share lower extremity venous ultrasound illustrations with you.
The clinical indications for performing a lower venous ultrasound examination is the suspicion of a lower extremity DVT in a swollen or discoloured leg.
Select a high-frequency linear transducer, (5-10) MHz transducer since it provides optimal venous copmression and image resolution.
Remember Risk Factors of DVT
Wells Score for Deep Vein Thrombosis
|Active cancer(treatment ongoing or within previous 6 months or palliative treatment)||1|
|Paralysis, paresis, or recent plaster immobilization or of the lower extremities||1|
|Recently bedridden for 3 days or more or major surgery within the previous 12 weeks requiring general or regional anesthesia||1|
|Localized tenderness along the distribution of the deep venous system||1|
|Entire leg swollen||1|
|Calf swelling > 3cm compared to asymptomatic leg (measuring 10 cm below tibial tuberosity)||1|
|Pitting edema confined to the symptomatic leg||1|
|Non varicose collateral superficial veins||1|
|Previously documented DVT||1|
|Alternative diagnosis at least as likely as DVT||1|
Normal DVT Ultrasound Findings
Reference and Further Reading
- American College of Emergency Physicians. Emergency ultrasound guidelines 2008. http://www.acep.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?ID=32878. February 2012.
Note: Visual drawings are inspired by the Point-of-Care ULTRASOUND Book.
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Anatomy Of The Hepatobiliary System
Indications for clinicians to perform point-of-care hepatobiliary ultrasound include the evaluation of; abdominal pain, jaundice, sepsis and ascites.
The most commonly used positions include; left lateral decubitus and supine position. A low-to medium-frequency (2–5 MHz) curvilinear ultrasound transducer will suffice for most ultrasound examinations of the gallbladder.
Patient positioning plays a vital role in the hepatobiliary ultrasound examination. Transducer position according to gallbladder; longitudinal and transverse.
Focus Points on Hepatobilary Ultrasound
Patient Position and Transducer Position
Normal Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Computed tomography (CT) is the most useful brain imaging tool in emergency medical practice. It is also the first imaging modality in patients presenting to the emergency department with headache, stroke and head trauma.
Many cranial lesions can easily be recognized in CT. One of the key points of diagnosing cranial lesions is knowing the anatomical structures. This gives us the advantage to evaluate CT by combining clinical findings with the image.
We created an image series for the most essential eight anatomical structures.
3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Superior Cerebellar Cistern
3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Quadrigeminal Plate
Midbrain, Interpeduncular Cistern
Suprasellar Cistern, 4th Ventricle
Pons, Medullary Junction
In the adult transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging, a standard series of cross-sectional anatomical views are recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE).
There are two major obstacles for ultrasound beam transmission: 1) bony chest wall, 2) air-filled lungs. Specific ultrasound transducer positions on the chest wall are required in order to perform optimal examination.
Four primary transducer positions or “windows” are recommended. For patients with normal levocardia, the examination begins at (1) the left parasternal window, followed by the apical window, (3) the subcostal or subxiphoid window, and (4) the suprasternal notch window
In this blog post, I will try to explain the “windows” of the echocardiographic imaging through drawings