Cranial CT Anatomy: A simple image guide for medical students

cranial ct anatomy

Computed tomography (CT) is the most useful brain imaging tool in emergency medical practice. It is also the first imaging modality in patients presenting to the emergency department with headache, stroke and head trauma.

Many cranial lesions can easily be recognized in CT. One of the key points of diagnosing cranial lesions is knowing the anatomical structures. This gives us the advantage to evaluate CT by combining clinical findings with the image.

We created an image series for the most essential eight anatomical structures.

cranial CT slices

Centrum Semiovale

centrum semiovale

Lateral Ventricles

lateral ventricles

3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Superior Cerebellar Cistern

3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Superior Cerebellar Cistern​

3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Quadrigeminal Plate

3rd Ventricle, Basal Ganglia, Quadrigeminal Plate

Midbrain, Interpeduncular Cistern​

interventricular cistern

Suprasellar Cistern, 4th Ventricle

Suprasellar cistern, 4th ventricle

Sella Turcica

sella turcica

Pons, Medullary Junction

pons medullary junction

Further Reading

Bonus Infographic

Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, "Cranial CT Anatomy: A simple image guide for medical students," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, September 4, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/09/04/cranial-ct-anatomy-a-simple-image-guide-for-medical-students/, date accessed: September 16, 2019

Basic Transthoracic Echocardiographic Imaging

In the adult transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging, a standard series of cross-sectional anatomical views are recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE).

There are two major obstacles for ultrasound beam transmission: 1) bony chest wall, 2) air-filled lungs. Specific ultrasound transducer positions on the chest wall are required in order to perform optimal examination.

Four primary transducer positions or “windows” are recommended. For patients with normal levocardia, the examination begins at (1) the left parasternal window, followed by the apical window, (3) the subcostal or subxiphoid window, and (4) the suprasternal notch window

A4C(Apical Four Chamber), A5C(Apical Five Chamber), A2C(Apical Tho Chmaber), A3C(Apical Three Chamber)

In this blog post, I will try to explain the “windows” of the echocardiographic imaging through drawings

LA(Left Atrium), LV(Left Ventricle), LVOT(Left Ventricular Outflow Tract), Ao(Aorta), RV(Right Ventricle), MV(Mitral valve), AoV(Aortic valve)
LV(Left Ventricle), RV(Right Ventricle)
LA(Left Atrium), RA(Right Atrium), RV(Rigt Ventricle), RVOT(Right Ventricular Outflow Tract), AoV(Aortic Valve), TV(Tricuspid Valve), PV(Pulmonary Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), RA(Right Atrium), RV(Right Ventricle), LV(Left Ventricle), LVOT(Left Ventricular Outflow Tract), TV(Tricuspid Valve), MV(Mitral Valve), AoV(Aortic Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), RA(Right Atrium), RV(Right Ventricle), LV(Left Ventricle), LVOT(Left Ventricular Outflow Tract), TV(Tricuspid Valve), MV(Mitral Valve), AoV(Aortic Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), LV(Left Ventricle), MV(Mitral Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), LV(Left Ventricle), Ao(Aorta), MV(Mitral Valve), AoV(Aortic Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), RA(Right Atrium), LV(Left Ventricle), RV(Right Ventricle), MV(Mitral Valve), TV(Tricuspid Valve)
LA(Left Atrium), BCA(Brachiocephalic Artery), LCA(Left Common Carotid Artery), LSC(Left Subclavian Artery), RPA(Right Pulmonary Artery)
Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, "Basic Transthoracic Echocardiographic Imaging," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, June 12, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/06/12/basic-transthoracic-echocardiographic-imaging/, date accessed: September 16, 2019