Rapid Ultrasound for Shock and Hypotension (RUSH) Protocol US Imaging – Illustrations

Patients with hypotension or shock have high mortality rates, and traditional physical exam techniques can be misleading. Diagnosis and initial care must be accurate and prompt to optimize patient care. Ultrasound is ideal for evaluating critically ill patients in shock, and ACEP guidelines now delineate a new category of ultrasound (US)– “resuscitative.” Bedside US allows for direct visualization of pathology and differentiation of shock states (1). The RUSH is one of the most commonly used protocols for this purpose.

The RUSH exam involves a 3-part bedside physiologic assessment simplified as “the pump,” “the tank,” and “the pipes” (2).

Pump

Tank

Rush Tank

Pipes

References and Further Reading

  1. By Organ System or Specialty Archives | Page 84 of 123 | ALiEM. https://www.aliem.com/category/emergency-medicine-clinical/system/page/84/
  2. Seif D1, Perera PMailhot TRiley DMandavia D. “Bedside ultrasound in resuscitation and the rapid ultrasound in shock protocol” Crit Care Res Pract. 2012;2012:503254.
  3. https://iem-student.org/2020/02/14/lower-extremity-deep-venous-us-imaging-illustrations/
  4. https://iem-student.org/rush/
  5. https://iem-student.org/efast/
Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, Turkey, "Rapid Ultrasound for Shock and Hypotension (RUSH) Protocol US Imaging – Illustrations," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, May 29, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/05/29/rush-protocol-illustrations/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

RUSH Course for Medical Students

Dear students,

We are pleased to open our third course for you; Rapid Ultrasound in Shock and Hypotension (RUSH).

As a part of our social responsibility initiative, iem-course.org will continue to provide free open online courses related to emergency medicine. We hope our courses help you to continue your education during these difficult times.

Please send us your feedback or requests about courses.

We are here to help you.

Best regards.

Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM

Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM

iEM Course is a social responsibility initiative of iEM Education Project

Hypotension is a high-risk sign which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate. The differential diagnosis for hypotension is broad and the treatment depends on the underlying etiology. In most cases of hypotension, patients present with limited history and physical examination may be inaccurate making the management of the condition a great challenge for emergency physicians.

The use of POCUS in undifferentiated hypotension has been shown to help correctly and rapidly identify the etiology and therefore initiate the appropriate management. Since 2001, there are many protocols published describing a systematic approach to the use of POCUS in undifferentiated hypotension. 

In this course, we will focus on the Rapid Ultrasound in Shock and Hypotension (RUSH) protocol.

This course aims to provide the necessary information on ultrasonography, its use in a hypotensive patient, and to prepare you for a RUSH practice session.

The course content is prepared and curated from iEM Education chapters, iEM image and video archives, and various FOAMed resources.

At the end of this course, you will be able to;

  • Describe the basics of ultrasound (terminology, knobology, image acquisition, artifacts, etc.)
  • Describe indications of RUSH protocol
  • Describe patient and machine preparations
  • Describe ultrasound examination views
  • Recognize normal anatomical structures
  • Recognize abnormal findings
  • Feel confident to take a practical session for RUSH protocol

Who can get benefit from this course?

  • Junior and senior medical students (course specifically designed for these groups)
  • Interns/Junior emergency medicine residents/registrars

Other Free Online Courses

Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "RUSH Course for Medical Students," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, May 27, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/05/27/rush-course-for-medical-students/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

eFAST Course for Medical Students

Dear students,

We are pleased to open our second course for you; Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (eFAST).

As a part of our social responsibility initiative, iem-course.org will continue to provide free open online courses related to emergency medicine. We hope our courses help you to continue your education during these difficult times.

Please send us your feedback or requests about courses.

We are here to help you.

Best regards.

Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM

Arif Alper Cevik, MD, FEMAT, FIFEM

iEM Course is a social responsibility initiative of iEM Education Project

Extended Focused Assessment With Sonography In Trauma (eFAST) is one of the most commonly used emergency ultrasound or Point-Of-Care Ultrasound protocols. It is a protocol that we use in trauma patients. However, the eFAST examination can also be a part of another protocol, such as RUSH protocol.

The early diagnosis of a bleeding trauma patient is essential for better patient care. Unfortunately, it is proven that our physical exam findings are not perfect in every case. Therefore, using a bedside tool in addition to the physical examination can improve patient management.

As a 21st-century medical student/young physician, you must learn how to use this tool to provide more comprehensive and accurate care to your patients.

This course aims to provide the necessary information on ultrasonography, its use in a multiply injured trauma patient, and to prepare you for an eFAST practice session.

Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "eFAST Course for Medical Students," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, May 18, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/05/18/efast-course-for-medical-students/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

Lower Extremity Deep Venous US Imaging – Illustrations

lower extremity us illustrations

Ultrasound evaluation for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the 11 core ultrasound applications for emergency physicians as listed in the 2008 American College of Emergency Physicians guidelines (1). Because ultrasound applications started to be implemented into medical school curriculum in many countries, learning basic ultrasound applications as early as possible will benefit medical students and junior residents. In this post, I will share lower extremity venous ultrasound illustrations with you. 

Indications

The clinical indications for performing a lower venous ultrasound examination is the suspicion of a lower extremity DVT in a swollen or discoloured leg. 

Transducer

Select a high-frequency linear transducer, (5-10) MHz transducer since it provides optimal venous copmression and image resolution.

lower extremity venous ultrasound - linear transducer

Remember Risk Factors of DVT

  • Age > 60
  • Cancer
  • Central venous catheter/insertion
  • Genetic causes of hypercoagulopaty
  • History of DVT
  • Immobilization
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Trauma or recent surgery
  • Use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy

Wells Score for Deep Vein Thrombosis

CriteriaScore
Active cancer(treatment ongoing or within previous 6 months or palliative treatment)
1
Paralysis, paresis, or recent plaster immobilization or of the lower extremities1
Recently bedridden for 3 days or more or major surgery within the previous 12 weeks requiring general or regional anesthesia1
Localized tenderness along the distribution of the deep venous system1
Entire leg swollen1
Calf swelling > 3cm compared to asymptomatic leg (measuring 10 cm below tibial tuberosity)1
Pitting edema confined to the symptomatic leg1
Non varicose collateral superficial veins1
Previously documented DVT1
Alternative diagnosis at least as likely as DVT1
DVT evaluation algorithm
Select a high-frequency linear transducer, (5-10) MHz transducer since it provides optimal venous copmression and image resolution.
sectional anatomy of lower extremity veins

Normal DVT Ultrasound Findings

normaL DVT ULTRASOUND findings
normaL DVT ULTRASOUND findings
normaL DVT ULTRASOUND findings
normaL DVT ULTRASOUND findings
normaL DVT ULTRASOUND findings

Reference and Further Reading

  1. American College of Emergency Physicians. Emergency ultrasound guidelines 2008. http://www.acep.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?ID=32878. February 2012.

Note: Visual drawings are inspired by the Point-of-Care ULTRASOUND Book.

Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, Turkey, "Lower Extremity Deep Venous US Imaging – Illustrations," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, February 14, 2020, https://iem-student.org/2020/02/14/lower-extremity-deep-venous-us-imaging-illustrations/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

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Cellulitis – Clinical Image and Ultrasound

cellulitis

Case Presentation

A 45-years-old male with a week history of right leg swelling and redness presented to the ED. He has type II DM and hypertension. He denies fever; however, complaints about burning pain over the skin. Vitals were 156/98 mmHg blood pressure, 98 beats per minute heart rate, 16 respiration per minute, 36.7 degrees Celsius temperature and 98% oxygen saturation in room air. Physical exam revealed erythema over the right medial lower leg and calf area (images). Minimally painful with palpation. The area was hot compared to the left leg. Other examination findings were unremarkable.

Cellulitis 2

Cellulitis 1

Patients with red, swollen, painful leg may have very severe problems such as necrotizing fasciitis (infection involving muscular fascia) or infections involving muscles with or without gangrene. The patients having these infections are generally ill-looking, severely painful, and may have subcutaneous crepitations. Therefore, we should be aware of these red flags. This patient has no sign of crepitations, systemic illness, or severe pain.

Lipodermatosclerosis is chronic erythema. Patients show exacerbations because of vascular insufficiency (venous). It can be bilateral or unilateral. One of the discriminative findings from cellulitis is temperature over the lesion. Lipodermatosclerosis is not hot. In the case, the palpation showed warm skin compared to the left side.

Erysipelas is superficial and its’ borders are very sharp. The lesion is fluffy compared to the skin around the lesion. In the case, some areas of the skin were found a little bit raised compared to surrounding structures. However, its’ borders were not well-demarcated.

Other differentials are burns, contact dermatitis, urticaria, etc.

Bedside ultrasound imaging can help to identify cellulitis, abscess, foreign body, fracture, etc. Cobblestone finding is a typical finding for cellulitis.

Bedside ultrasound imaging was performed with Butterfly iQ with soft tissue settings. Cobblestone finding was found in the erythematous areas. This is a nonspecific finding and can be seen many different soft tissue infections. There were no gas/air artifacts (necrotizing fasciitis) or obvious abscess formation. However, there was a minimal fluid accumulation, which creates a suspicion of an abscess. In the case, there was no air artifact. However, x-rays can also help to show air accumulation in soft tissues.

An Example for Necrotizing Fasciitis

The ultrasound investigation in this video shows the air (white) artifacts in the soft tissue.

X-ray Image Showing Subcutaneous Air in Necrotizing Fasciitis

Case courtesy of Dr Matt Skalski, Radiopaedia.org. From the case rID: 25026

For mild uncomplicated patients – dicloxacillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin are common choices.

If the patient has a penicillin allergy – clindamycin or a macrolide (clarithromycin or azithromycin) can be used.

Fluoroquinolones should be reserved for gram-negative organisms’ sensitivity defined by culture results because of their additional toxicity risks.

For more antibiotic options and explanations, please visit – here

The patients with co-morbidities compromising immune response, periorbital or perianal locations, unable to tolerate oral medication, deep infections should be admitted.

References and Further Reading

  • Loyer EM, DuBrow RA, David CL, Coan JD, Eftekhari F. Imaging of superficial soft-tissue infections: sonographic findings in cases of cellulitis and abscess. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996 Jan;166(1):149-52. PubMed PMID: 8571865.
  • Shyy W, Knight RS, Goldstein R, Isaacs ED, Teismann NA. Sonographic Findings in Necrotizing Fasciitis: Two Ends of the Spectrum. J Ultrasound Med. 2016 Oct;35(10):2273-7. doi: 10.7863/ultra.15.12068. Epub 2016 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 27582527.
Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Cellulitis – Clinical Image and Ultrasound," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, December 2, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/12/02/cellulitis-clinical-image-and-ultrasound/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

Hepatobiliary US Imaging – Illustrations

hepatobiliary ultrasound

Anatomy Of The Hepatobiliary System

Anatomy of the hepatobiliary system

Indications

Indications for clinicians to perform point-of-care hepatobiliary ultrasound include the evaluation of; abdominal pain, jaundice, sepsis and ascites.

Transducer

The most commonly used positions include; left lateral decubitus and supine position. A low-to medium-frequency (2–5 MHz) curvilinear ultrasound transducer will suffice for most ultrasound examinations of the gallbladder.

curvilinear transducer

Patient positioning

Patient positioning plays a vital role in the hepatobiliary ultrasound examination. Transducer position according to gallbladder; longitudinal and transverse.

Focus Points on Hepatobilary Ultrasound

focus points hepatobilary ultrasound

Patient Position and Transducer Position

Patient Position and Transducer Position​
Patient Position and Transducer Position​

Normal Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings

Normal Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings​

Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings

Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Pathological Hepatobiliary Ultrasound Findings
Cite this article as: Murat Yazici, Turkey, "Hepatobiliary US Imaging – Illustrations," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 27, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/27/hepatobiliary-us-imaging-illustrations/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

Massive Pneumothorax Without A Tension

massive pneumothorax

Case Presentation

A 24-years-old male with shortness of breath and chest pain presented to the emergency department. He was alert and oriented. Vitals were as follows; BP: 127/65 mmHg, HR: 101 beats per min, RR: 24 breaths per min, T: 37-degree celsius, SatO2: 94%. Physical examination revealed that normal breathing sounds on the left side, but decreased breath sounds on the right side of the chest. No JVD noted. Other examination findings were unremarkable.

Shortness of breath and chest pain started suddenly while he was playing soccer about 30 minutes ago. Since then, shortness of breath and chest pain increased. He has no known medical disease, allergy.

Bedside ultrasound revealed pneumothorax on the right.

Bedside Ultrasound Examination

Above video shows left side B mode ultrasound examination. Investigation was done in lung settings by using Butterfly iQ portable ultrasound. Lung sliding and comet tail artefacts are seen on examination which is normal findings.

Above video shows right side B mode and M-mode ultrasound examination. There is no lung sliding or comet tail artefacts in B mode, and M-mode revealed “barcode sign” which is seen in pneumothorax.

Pneumothorax - US - Lung - M-mode

Image shows “barcode sign” in M-mode examination. 

Bedside Portable Chest X-ray

spontaneous pneumothorax 1 - 18yo male

Bedside portable anteroposterior chest x-ray shows right sided large pneumothorax.

Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Massive Pneumothorax Without A Tension," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 25, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/25/massive-pneumothorax-without-a-tension/, date accessed: July 12, 2020

Torus Fracture – Diagnosed with ultrasound

torus fracture

Case Presentation

A 9-years old male patient brought to the ED by his parents because of the right forearm pain. The patient is alert, oriented, and moderately in distress. He described that he stepped on the ball and fell while playing soccer with his friends. He denies any other injury, loss of consciousness, etc.

Physical Exam

Torus Fracture - right arm 2

The patient complaints right forearm pain, especially distal 1/4 of the radius. There was no deformity or swelling recognized on inspection. 

Torus Fracture - right arm 1

The patient refuses any movement on the right arm because of pain during the movement, especially in rotational movements. He prefers to stay in the rest position, as shown in the picture.

There was no visible deformity and swelling in the inspection. However, the patient described palpation tenderness over the forearm, especially point tenderness over the distal 1/4 – 1/5 of the radius. The patient also described minimal pain on elbow and wrist movements. The neurovascular examination was unremarkable. There are no other findings regarding trauma. Patient parents deny any disease, medication, operation, etc. He has received 250 mg paracetamol in the school after consultation with the family. However, he still shows distress because of pain.

After the physical exam, 200 ibuprofen was given. X-ray is planned, and musculoskeletal ultrasound was applied while he waits for an X-ray.

We used Butterfly iQ to investigate the radius by using musculoskeletal settings. The ultrasound showed periosteal discontinuity with a 2-3 mm step-off sign at the distal radius. 

Diagnosing fractures with ultrasound

Ultrasound showed high pooled sensitivity (91%) and specificity (94%) (Schmid et al., 2017). It is a very effective modality, especially in the detection of long bone fractures such as humerus, forearm, tibia, fibula, etc.

In forearm fractures, its’ sensitivity is between 64 and 100%, its’ specificity is between 73-100% (Katzer et al., 2016). Besides, ultrasound provides 25 minutes earlier diagnosis advantage compared to other modalities, namely X-rays. Ultrasound’s effectiveness has elbow, been shown in many articles, its’ best performance is on diaphysis fractures of long bones (Weingberg et al., 2010).

After the detection of Torus (Buckle) fracture by ultrasound, the patient was sent to X-ray in order to investigate elbow, forearm and wrist in more detail. X-rays showed Torus fracture at the distal radius, which the diagnosis aligned with the ultrasound result.​

Torus Fracture - right arm 4

Torus Fracture - right arm 3

AP X-ray showed minor periosteal step-off/bulging on both sides. Lateral X-rays showed periosteal discontinuity with a 2-3 mm step-off on the dorsal side of the radius.

The final diagnosis of the patient was Torus (Buckle) fracture.

A long arm splint was applied in the ED because of his elbow and wrist pain. The patient discharged with pain medication, ice and elevation recommendations. On the 4th day, the patient visited the orthopedic clinic, and his splint changed to short arm splint. He was pain-free on the elbow and wrist.

References

  1. Schmid GL, Lippmann S, Unverzagt S, Hofmann C, Deutsch T, Frese T. The Investigation of Suspected Fracture-a Comparison of Ultrasound With Conventional Imaging. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017 Nov 10;114(45):757-764. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0757. PubMed PMID: 29202925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5729224.
  2. Katzer C, Wasem J, Eckert K, Ackermann O, Buchberger B. Ultrasound in the Diagnostics of Metaphyseal Forearm Fractures in Children: A Systematic Review and Cost Calculation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016 Jun;32(6):401-7. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000446. Review. PubMed PMID: 26087441.
  3. Weinberg ER, Tunik MG, Tsung JW. Accuracy of clinician-performed point-of-care ultrasound for the diagnosis of fractures in children and young adults. Injury. 2010 Aug;41(8):862-8. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2010.04.020. Epub 2010 May 13. PubMed PMID: 20466368.
 
Cite this article as: Arif Alper Cevik, "Torus Fracture – Diagnosed with ultrasound," in International Emergency Medicine Education Project, November 6, 2019, https://iem-student.org/2019/11/06/torus-fracture-diagnosed-with-ultrasound/, date accessed: July 12, 2020